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The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians. Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.

The invasion prompted the Flemish population to generally side with the Germans in the hope of gaining national recognition, and relative to national population a much higher proportion of Belgians than French thus ended up collaborating with the Nazis or volunteering to fight alongside them; [] [] The Walloon population in turn led massive anti-Flemish retribution after the war, some of which, such as the execution of Irma Swertvaeger Laplasse , remained controversial. The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany.

The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists. Some accused war criminals were judged, some for a second time, from the s onwards: Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts.

A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil. Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.

While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. Conditions of armistice and 10 July vote of full powers. In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand. The Republic had nothing to do with this.

I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July speech. The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps. President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust.

Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France. As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away". Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust. Three main periods have been distinguished in the historiography of Vichy: The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration's collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews.

Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years.

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Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka.

While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated. Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews. One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules.

Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building. Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one.

This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews. However, this argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus.

Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space. After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens [] ".

Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order". But "Hitler never forgot the defeat. He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front. The war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews".

This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring [ when? France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate. This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:.

The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them? Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:. Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews.

At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable. Despite Paxton's assertion about Vichy knowledge "from the start", deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started.

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Part of the population housed at the Dachau concentration camp , opened in , was Jewish, and major death camps in Poland and Germany were opened in and early Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation. Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was then invaded by Germany.

Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans. In fact, the rise of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism had drastically curtailed Jewish immigration during the inter-war period, and Italy had passed drastic anti-Semitic laws in that stripped Jews of their citizenship.

Ultimately, a similar proportion of Jews from Italy as from France were deported. More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews. Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves.

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It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy. Many had been at Drancy for several months. They had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , however, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find.

Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly. Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January.

More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier. Media related to Vichy government at Wikimedia Commons.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vichy disambiguation. The French State in French State, German military occupation zone. The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Axis powers. Paris remained the formal capital of the French State, although the Vichy government never operated from there. Although the French Republic's institutions were officially maintained, the word "Republic" never occurred in any official document of the Vichy government. Part of a series on the. Direct Capetians — Valois — This section needs additional citations for verification.

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    May Learn how and when to remove this template message. French collaborators with Nazi Germany. Pierre Pucheu in , who was executed in Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 21 October The form of the government of France is and remains the Republic. By law, it has not ceased to exist. The following are therefore null and void: This nullification is hereby expressly declared and must be noted. The following acts are hereby expressly nullified and held invalid: La vie musicale sous Vichy.

    University of Chicago Press. French Studies, University of Birmingham. Retrieved 18 June Germany and the Second World War: Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources From the Thirties to the Postwar Era.

    A Comparative Approach Toward a Definition. French Art and Heritage Under Vichy. Berghahan Books, pages Doughty, The Breaking Point: The Dark Years, — Memory and Justice on Trial. Retrieved 31 May France during World War II: From Defeat to Liberation. Cette Constitution doit garantir les droits du travail, de la famille et de la patrie. Sweets, Choices in Vichy France: CooperSquare Press, page Retrieved 17 January Retrieved 16 March Naval Institute Press, , p. Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine. Journal of Contemporary History.

    University of Chicago Press, ; the French edition appeared in Lee Ready , World War Two. Nation by Nation , London, Cassell, page Vichy et l'ordre moral. Michael Robert Marrus, Robert O. Archived from the original on 22 July United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ushmm.

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    Alexis Carrel, the Unknown: Eugenics and Population Research under Vichy French historical studies , Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 28 January The Theology of Medicine New York: Syracuse University Press, Les silences de la police: Holocaust Memorial Museum online Holocaust Encyclopedia".

    The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December France 'not responsible' for deporting Jews during Holocaust". Retrieved 17 July Macron denounces state role in Holocaust atrocity". Essais sur la France: A history of political class coalitions and the south-European welfare state regime". Journal of European Social Policy Artisans and Political Economy in Vichy France". The Case of the Shopkeepers". The Path to European Unity.

    France and the international economy: Women and the Second World War in France, — The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food. Wives of French Prisoners of War, — Mobilizing Gender in Vichy France. Vichy and the Eternal Feminine: A Contribution to a Political-Sociology of Gender. Retrieved 23 May The Independent on Sunday. World War 2 Facts. Retrieved 12 January Three Vichy personalities" PDF.

    Retrieved 30 March Berghahn Books — via Google Books. In law, the Republic never ceased to exist. The Politics of Memory in France". Stanford University Press — via Google Books. The European Civil War, The Trial in History: Domestic and international trials, Power and Prejudice in the Vichy France Regime. French Historical Studies 18 3 pp. Retrieved 29 August University of Nebraska Press, , pp. Retrieved 2 February Voices from the Dark Years: France Under the Germans: From Defeat to Liberation 2nd ed. France and the Second World War: Foreigners, Undesirables, and Strangers , pp excerpt and text search Gildea, Robert.

    France at War in the Twentieth Century: Propaganda, Myth, and Metaphor. Contemporary France Providence, R. The Dark Years, — excerpt and text search ; online edition Jennings, Eric The Journal of Contemporary History. The Expectation of Justice: National Regeneration in Vichy France: France since the Popular Front: Government and People — Oxford U P Journal of European Social Policy 25 1 pp: You are free to enter France however long you plan to stay or study there.

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