Pero el mayor problema que identificaron los investigadores fue la dificultad a la hora de que los alumnos se concentren en su trabajo. Son algunas de las preguntas. En la vida del mercado se traduce a planificar para ahorrar tiempos, ganar eficiencia y productividad. Y en la vida implica renunciar a las libertades para ganar seguridades. Uno nace y lo programan para ser alguien. Las relaciones de poder lo programan para obedecer los pobres y mandar los ricos.
El mercado es programar ganancias, minimizar gastos, exhibir resultados. Somos los sujetos programados y lo hacemos felices porque no habitamos el lenguaje: Y es que si no hablamos el lenguaje, no podemos crear, ni expresarnos ni intervenir el mundo. Ellas nos dirigen, nos formatean los modos de narrar y pensar. Uno termina pensando como Google: Somos rebeldes de YouTube, curadores de Instagram, subjetividades de Facebook.
Lo peor es que pensamos que eso es neutro y no. Somos los esclavos de los programadores negociantes. Programar hoy es habitar la cultura libre. Promovemos el uso de licencias libres. El Copyright no nos sirve. Saludamos a nuestros aliados. Su soledad es ahora una multitud de voces: Al mismo tiempo, es importante el libre acceso a la cultura y el conocimiento. No podemos aguantar las ganas de remover todo, de crear debate, de repensarlo todo.
Programar es ser libres y pensar con la propia cabeza. CoPs can exist in physical settings, for example, a lunch room at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located. Communities of practice are not new phenomena: The idea is rooted in American pragmatism, especially C.
Pierce's concept of "the community of inquiry" Shields , but also John Dewey's principle of learning through occupation Wallace Do you want to try some new features? By joining the beta, you will get access to experimental features, at the risk of encountering bugs and issues. Okay No thanks Contents Overview Origin and development Early years Later years Present work Examples Communities of practice compared to functional or project teams Communities of Practice versus Communities of Interest Communities of practice and knowledge management Benefit Social capital Factors of a successful community of practice Individuals in communities of practice Social presence Motivation Collaboration Actions to cultivate a successful community of practice See also References Further reading External links Overview Edit Origin and development Edit Since the publication of "Situated Learning: Cox offers a more critical view of the different ways in which the term communities of practice can be interpreted.
Lave and Wenger first used the term communities of practice to describe learning through practice and participation, which they named situated learning. The structure of the community was created over time through a process of legitimate peripheral participation. Lave and Wenger's research looked at how apprenticeships help people learn. They found that when newcomers join an established group or community, they spend some time initially observing and perhaps performing simple tasks in basic roles as they learn how the group works and how they can participate an apprentice electrician, for example would watch and learn before actually doing any electrical work; initially taking on small simple jobs and eventually more complicated ones.
Lave and Wenger described this socialization process as legitimate peripheral participation. Later years Edit In his later work, Wenger abandoned the concept of legitimate peripheral participation and used the idea of an inherent tension in a duality instead. He identifies four dualities that exist in communities of practice, participation-reification, designed-emergent, identification-negotiability and local-global, although the participation-reification duality has been the focus of particular interest because of its links to knowledge management.
He describes the structure of a CoP as consisting of three interrelated terms: Firstly, through participation in the community, members establish norms and build collaborative relationships; this is termed mutual engagement. These relationships are the ties that bind the members of the community together as a social entity. Secondly, through their interactions, they create a shared understanding of what binds them together; this is termed the joint enterprise.
The joint enterprise is re negotiated by its members and is sometimes referred to as the 'domain' of the community. Finally, as part of its practice, the community produces a set of communal resources, which is termed their shared repertoire; this is used in the pursuit of their joint enterprise and can include both literal and symbolic meanings.
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Present work Edit For Etienne Wenger, learning is central to human identity. The structural characteristics of a community of practice are again redefined to a domain of knowledge, a notion of community and a practice. Domain A domain of knowledge creates common ground, inspires members to participate, guides their learning and gives meaning to their actions. Community The notion of a community creates the social fabric for that learning. A strong community fosters interactions and encourages a willingness to share ideas. Practice While the domain provides the general area of interest for the community, the practice is the specific focus around which the community develops, shares and maintains its core of knowledge.
These communities take on knowledge stewarding tasks that were formerly covered by more formal organizational structures. In some organizations there are both formal and informal communities of practice. There is a great deal of interest within organizations to encourage, support, and sponsor communities of practice in order to benefit from shared knowledge that may lead to higher productivity Wenger Communities of practice are now viewed by many in the business setting as a means to capturing the tacit knowledge, or the know-how that is not so easily articulated.
An important aspect and function of communities of practice is increasing organization performance. Other fields have made use of the concept of CoPs. The Xerox reps began exchanging tips and tricks over informal meetings over breakfast or lunch and eventually Xerox saw the value of these interactions and created the Eureka project to allow these interactions to be shared across the global network of representatives.
Communities of practice compared to functional or project teams Edit Collaboration constellations differ in various ways. Some are under organizational control e. A project team differs from a community of practice in several significant ways McDermott, A project team is driven by deliverables with shared goals, milestones and results.
A project team meets to share and exchange information and experiences just as the community of practice does, but team membership is defined by task. A project team typically has designated members who remain consistent in their roles during the project. A project team is dissolved once its mission is accomplished. By contrast, A community of practice is often organically created, with as many objectives as members of that community.
Community membership is defined by the knowledge of the members. CoP membership changes and members may take on new roles within the community as interests and needs arise. A community of practice can exist as long as the members believe they have something to contribute to it, or gain from it. Communities of Practice versus Communities of Interest Edit In addition to the distinction between CoP and other types of organizational groupings found in the workplace, in some cases it is useful to differentiate CoP from Communities of Interest CoI.
Community of Interest A group of people interested in sharing information and discussing a particular topic that interests them. Members are not necessarily experts or practitioners of the topic around which the CoI has formed. The purpose of the CoI is to provide a place where people who share a common interest can go and exchange information, ask questions, and express their opinions about the topic.
Membership in a CoI is not dependent upon expertise - one only needs to be interested in the subject. Community of Practice A CoP, in contrast, is a group of people who are active practitioners. CoP participation is not appropriate for non-practitioners. The purpose of a CoP, as discussed above, is to provide a way for practitioners to share tips and best practices, ask questions of their colleagues, and provide support for each other.
Membership is dependent on expertise - one should have at least some recent experience performing in the role or subject area of the CoP. Since this community is focused on working photojournalists, it would not be appropriate for an amateur photographer to contribute to the CoP discussions there. Depending on the CoPs structure non-CoP members may have access to reading the discussions and accessing other materials of the community.
Communities of practice and knowledge management Edit Wasko and Faraj describe three kinds of knowledge: Communities of Practice have become associated with finding, sharing, transferring, and archiving knowledge, as well as making explicit "expertise", or tacit knowledge. Thus, for knowledge management, a community of practice is one source of content and context that if codified, documented and archived can be accessed for later use.
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Benefit Edit Social capital Edit Social capital is said to be a multi-dimensional concept, with both public and private facets Bourdieu That is, social capital may provide value to both the individual and the group as a whole. Through informal connections that participants build in their community of practice, and in the process of sharing their expertise, learning from others, and participating in the group, members are said to be acquiring social capital - especially those members who demonstrate expertise and experience. Factors of a successful community of practice Edit Individuals in communities of practice Edit Members of communities of practice are thought to be more efficient and effective conduits of information and experiences.
While organizations tend to provide manuals to meet the training needs of their employees, CoPs help foster the process of storytelling among colleagues which, in turn, helps them strengthen their skills on the job. Time is saved by conferring with members of a CoP. Members of the community have tacit knowledge, which can be difficult to store and retrieve outside. For example, one person can share the best way to handle a situation based on his experiences, which may enable the other person to avoid mistakes and shorten the learning curve. In a CoP, members can openly discuss and brainstorm about a project, which can lead to new capabilities.
The type of information that is shared and learned in a CoP is boundless Dalkir Duguid clarifies the difference between tacit knowledge, or knowing how, and explicit knowledge, or knowing what. Performing optimally in a job requires being able to convert theory into practice. Communities of practice help the individual bridge the gap between knowing what and knowing how.
Duguid As members of communities of practice, individuals report increased communication with people professionals, interested parties, hobbyists , less dependence on geographic proximity, and the generation of new knowledge. Tu defines social presence as "the degree of salience of another person in an interaction and the consequent salience of an interpersonal relationship" p.
It is believed that social presence affects how likely an individual is of participating in a CoP especially in online environments. Tu Management of a community of practice often faces many barriers that inhibit individuals from engaging in knowledge exchange. Members of a community of practice can also be motivated to participate by using methods such as tangible returns promotion, raises or bonuses , intangible returns reputation, self-esteem and community interest exchange of practice related knowledge, interaction.
Collaboration Edit Collaboration is essential to ensuring that communities of practice thrive. Sveiby and Simons found that more seasoned colleagues tend to foster a more collaborative culture. Additionally they noted that a higher educational level also predicts a tendency to favor collaboration. Actions to cultivate a successful community of practice Edit See also: Motivations for online participation What makes a community of practice succeed depends on the purpose and objective of the community as well as the interests and resources of the members of that community.
Wenger identified seven actions that could be taken in order to cultivate communities of practice: Design the community to evolve naturally - Because the nature of a Community of Practice is dynamic, in that the interests, goals, and members are subject to change, CoP forums should be designed to support shifts in focus. Create opportunities for open dialog within and with outside perspectives - While the members and their knowledge are the CoP's most valuable resource, it is also beneficial to look outside of the CoP to understand the different possibilities for achieving their learning goals.
Welcome and allow different levels of participation - Wenger identifies 3 main levels of participation. This group typically takes on leadership roles in guiding the group 2 The active group who attend and participate regularly, but not to the level of the leaders. Wenger notes the third group typically represents the majority of the community.
Develop both public and private community spaces - While CoPs typically operate in public spaces where all members share, discuss and explore ideas, they should also offer private exchanges. Different members of the CoP could coordinate relationships among members and resources in an individualized approach based on specific needs. Focus on the value of the community - CoPs should create opportunities for participants to explicitly discuss the value and productivity of their participation in the group.
Combine familiarity and excitement - CoPs should offer the expected learning opportunities as part of their structure, and opportunities for members to shape their learning experience together by brainstorming and examining the conventional and radical wisdom related to their topic. Find and nurture a regular rhythm for the community - CoPs should coordinate a thriving cycle of activities and events that allow for the members to regularly meet, reflect, and evolve.
The rhythm, or pace, should maintain an anticipated level of engagement to sustain the vibrancy of the community, yet not be so fast-paced that it becomes unwieldy and overwhelming in its intensity. Journal of knowledge management 7 1: Language and symbolic power. Brown, John Seely; Duguid, Paul How to capture knowledge without killing it". A comparative review of four seminal works. Journal of Information Science 31 6: Commonwealth Parliamentary Review, "The Parliamentarian" 31 3: Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice.
Knowledge Transfer for the Military Leader. How organizations manage what they know, 2nd Edition. Harvard Business School Press. Journal of Organizational Change Management 18 2: Toward a theory of teacher community. Hildreth, Paul; Kimble, Chris Information Research 8 1. Innovation through Communities of Practice. A typology of mobile communities of practice and contextual ambidexterity" PDF. Journal of Strategic Information Systems 3 4. Creating Learning Environments for Educators.
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Lave, Jean; Wenger, Etienne McDermott, Richard; Archibald, Douglas Polyani, Michael; Sen, Amartya University Of Chicago Press; Reissue edition. Seely Brown, John; Duguid, Paul Toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation". Organization Science 2 1. The Community of Inquiry: Journal of Knowledge Management 6 5: Human and social factors in knowledge management" PDF.
IBM Systems Journal 40 4: International Journal on E-learning. Historical and Cross-disciplinary Themes Libraries Unlimited knowledge management series. Journal of Strategic Information Systems 9 Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cultivating Communities of Practice Hardcover. Harvard Business Press; 1 edition. Beyond Communities of Practice: Language Power and Social Context. Chua, Alton October Cultivating Communities of Practice". Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. The Art of Knowing: Harvard Business Review 69 6 Nov-Dec: Journal of Management Studies Wiley-Blackwell. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education.
External links Edit Etienne Wenger: The Global Gender Gap Report How to Teach Multiplication by Teaching Art. The Definition Of Blended Learning. That alone is one of the major benefits of blended learning. The Definition Of Blended Learning Defining hybrid or blended education is a trickier task than one might think—opinions vary wildly on the matter.
Hybrid education uses online technology to not just supplement, but transform and improve the learning process. That does not mean a professor can simply start a chat room or upload lecture videos and say he is leading a hybrid classroom. In other words, hybrid classrooms on the Internet can reach and engage students in a truly customizable way.
In this scenario, online education is a game changer, not just a supplement for status quo. But what does this theoretical model actually look like in practice? Blended Learning In Action In the course of higher education, blended or hybrid learning is a snazzy, yet relatively new tool, and not all professors use it the same way. Trends have emerged, however. For instance, most professors in blended classrooms use some version of a course management system application to connect with students online. Through platforms like these, students can access video of lectures, track assignments and progress, interact with professors and peers, and review other supporting materials, like PowerPoint presentations or scholarly articles.
Even if all professors used the same platform, however, they could each integrate them into their classrooms differently. In a traditional classroom, instructors use class time to lecture and disseminate support materials. Students then review these materials and complete any assignments at home, on their own time. With some luck, teachers will review those assignments in class the following day, or at least host office hours so that they can field questions and offer support.
In this method, teachers and professors use online media to deliver notes, lectures and related course materials. Students review these materials at home and at their own pace. Classroom periods are then transformed into hands-on work periods where the teacher—who will have already delivered his or her lecture digitally—is free to field questions, engage class-wide discussions or offer other means of support.
But is it effective?
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Can blended learning—whatever the application—truly transform education as we know it? Does Blended Learning Work? Not all students learn the same way. This is not a particularly novel concept, but it is an important one. Students never outgrow their learning styles, so why do traditional college classrooms fail to engage all of them? It sounds ideal on paper, but does it work? A meta-analysis published by the U.
Department of Education suggests it does. According to the report, students exposed to both face-to-face and online education were more successful than students entirely in one camp or the other. Is There A Catch?
Of course, no educational model is one-size-fits-all, and some hybrid classrooms are probably more effective than others. Teachers must be committed to and well trained in blended and hybrid education and its technologies, and students must have a clear understanding of what is expected of them in this new environment. As blended learning becomes more common, schools and professors will likely understand and implement it better. Yet even now, early in the game, blended education shows promise, making this an exciting time to be a student. This is a cross-post from onlineschools.
Pero, he observado las presentaciones de Fabricio Ballarini y me parecen muy novedosas. Aquello nos indica un esfuerzo adicional muy importante: Retornando a la videoconferencia del Dr. RIE 56 Mayo-Agosto Todo el sistema educativo ha adoptado el pensamiento TIC. En Colombia hay 7,6 millones de conexiones a Internet banda ancha. Luego, la cosa va bien, muy bien. Simple, el gobierno regala tabletas y los beneficiados tienen que comprar el plan de datos a un operador privado.
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There is some faint to heavy foxing scattered throughout the book subject to the paper used for a portion of the book. Comedia en tres actos. Cubiertas mudas en papel. In Zapotec and Spanish. Only 2, copies printed. Originally published in Puebla by Viuda de M. Now with a new introduction. Zapotec language -- Texts. Zapotec Indians -- History -- 18th century -- Sources. Indians of Mexico -- Religious life -- History -- 18th century -- Sources.
Catholic Church -- Catechisms -- Zapotec. Catholic Church -- Mexico -- History -- 18th century -- Sources. Mexico -- Church history -- 16th century -- Sources. Taupe card wraps with color illus. List of photographers includes: Calmet, Ramon David, Jacinto J. Catalogue from an annual exhibition of photos by young, up-and-coming Spanish photographers. VG, clean and tight but with some bending to front cover. Re-bound into a perma-binding with a clear cover.
Diatrope Books namus [Books from Diatrope Books]. Light chipping to the edges of the wrappers and some age toning around the edges. Also age toning to the leaves. Text is unmarked by underlining or notations. Provides a written analysis of dixieland style and sheet music for these songs: Clean and unmarked with moderate wear. A sound vintage copy. A Manchester Man of the Thirties Illus. Fine Levine's memoirs of the unemployed marches, anti-fascist actitivies and especially his experiences as a member of the International Brigades in Spain.
The 32 full page plates are all present, and the printed commentary is complete.
Neat ownership name in ink to the front free endpaper. This copy is no. There should be an outer stiff folder with ties; this is no longer present. This copy has the inner cream plain wrapper and all is in fine state, but, this is a copy for someone who need the contents, rather than a collector.
Gosudarstvennoe Sotsialno-Ekonomicheskoe Izdatelstvo, Very good in very good dust jacket. Off-white pages with occasional pencil marks. Several ink marks on wraps at back and on back flap. Wraps have light shelf wear. Very Good with no dust jacket. Some light cover spotting. A, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Soft Cover, Very Good. This book is an integrated intermediate Spanish package whose primary goal is to help students acquire language proficiency while reviewing and broadening the grammar foundation attained in elementary Spanish.
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